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Cybersickness in current-generation virtual reality head-mounted displays: systematic review and outlook

Author:Polona Caserman, Augusto Garcia-Agundez, Alvar Gámez Zerban, Stefan Göbel
Date:March 2021
Kind:Article - use for journal articles only
Journal:Springer Virtual Reality
Keywords:Immersive Virtual Reality, Head-Mounted Display, Cybersickness, Visually Induced Motion Sickness
Abstract:Cybersickness (CS) is a term used to refer to symptoms, such as nausea, headache, and dizzi- ness that users experience during or after virtual reality immersion. Initially discovered in flight simulators, commercial virtual reality (VR) head-mounted displays (HMD) of the current generation also seem to cause CS, albeit in a different manner and severity. The goal of this work is to summarize recent literature on CS with modern HMDs, to determine the specificities and profile of immersive VR-caused CS, and to provide an outlook for future research areas. A systematic review was performed on the databases IEEE Xplore, PubMed, ACM, and Scopus from 2013 to 2019 and 49 publications were selected. A summarized text states how different VR HMDs impact CS, how the nature of movement in VR HMDs contributes to CS, and how we can use biosensors to detect CS. The results of the meta-analysis show that although current-generation VR HMDs cause significantly less CS (p < 0.001), some symptoms remain as intense. Further results show that the nature of movement and, in particular, sensory mismatch as well as perceived motion have been the leading cause of CS. We suggest an outlook on future research, including the use of galvanic skin response to evaluate CS in combination with the golden standard (Simulator Sickness Questionnaire, SSQ) as well as an update on the subjective evaluation scores of the SSQ.

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