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Modeling the Player: Predictability of the Models of Bartle and Kolb Based on NEO-FFI (Big5) and the Implications for Game Based Learning

Author:Johannes Konert, Michael Gutjahr, Stefan Göbel, Ralf Steinmetz
Date:July 2014
Kind:Article - use for journal articles only
Journal:International Journal of Game-Based Learning
Keywords:adaptation; bartle test; big5; learning style; model independency; personality; player
Number of characters:27058
Research Area(s):Mobile Networking, Serious Games
Abstract:For adaptation and personalization of game play sophisticated player models and learner models are used in game-based learning environments. Thus, the game flow can be optimized to increase efficiency and ef- fectiveness of gaming and learning in parallel. In the field of gaming still the Bartle model is commonly used due to its simplicity and good mapping to game scenarios, for learning the Learning Style Inventory from Kolb or Index of Learning Styles by Felder and Silverman are well known. For personality traits the NEO- FFI (Big5) model is widely accepted. When designing games, it is always a challenge to assess one player’s profile characteristics properly in all three models (player/learner/personality). To reduce the effort and amount of dimensions and questionnaires a player might have to fill out, we proved the hypothesis that both, Learning Style Inventory and Bartle Player Types could be predicted by knowing the personality traits based on NEO-FFI. Thus we investigated the statistical correlations among the models by collecting answers to the questionnaires of Bartle Test, Kolb LSI 3.1 and BFI-K (short version of NEO-FFI). A study was conducted in spring 2012 with six school classes of grade 9 (12-14 year old students) in two different secondary schools in Germany. 74 students participated in the study which was offered optionally after the use of a game-based learning tool for peer learning. We present the results statistics and correlations among the models as well as the interdependencies with the student’s level of proficiency and their social connectedness. In conclusion, the evaluation (correlation and regression analyses) proved the independency of the models and the validity of the dimensions. Still, especially for all of the playing style preferences of Bartle’s model significant cor- relations with some of the analyzed other questionnaire items could be found. As no predictions of learning style preferences is possible on the basis of this studies data, the final recommendation for the development of game-based learning application concludes that separate modeling for the adaptation game flow (playing) and learn flow (learning) is still necessary.

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